Our Great Concestors

Amir Temur
Amir Temur was born (1336-1405) in the village of Khodja-Ilgar, near Shakhrisabz. He was the son of Amir Taragay, who was from Barlos tribes.

From his youth he appeared on the political scene as an active politician and military figure. Having become the ruler of Samarkand he built a great army and carried on many annexationist campaigns. Thus he expanded his empire that stretched from the Volga River and the Caucasian ridges in the west to India in the Southwest. But the center of the empire was in Central Asia. Temur wanted to designate his hometown, Shakhrisabz, as his capital, but certain political considerations forced him to leave with Samarkand the loving moniker of "Shining Star of the Orient".

Amir Temur made an outstanding contribution to the national state system, education and culture, and general development of his state. He promoted the construction of monumental historic buildings, especially in Samarkand. Some of them can be seen today. The inscription on the portal of Timur's Palace Ak-Sarai in Shakhrisabz, reads "If you doubt our might, look at our buildings". The impressiveness of the architecture was aimed at the demonstration of the greatness of the empire. All possible means and every effort were exerted to construct these magnificent buildings. A vast range of building materials from neighboring regions, famous architects, suppliers, and a great number of workers were brought to work. Different specialists were taken from occupied lands.

During the entire 14th century there were many experienced architects and artists gathered in Central Asia, most of them particularly in Samarkand. Skilled craftsmen from Iran, Azerbaijan, Khorezm, and India were invited without hesitation. Both foreign and local masters realized the great importance of the projects. They represented different arts and crafts which were mastered by others. They adopted each others' styles, which combined into a completely original type of design.

Amir Temur's political status required him to have friendly relations with the leaders of many religions.

Such relations were established by constructing mosques, madrassahs, and especially mausoleums. Many of them, for example the Juma Mosque, Gur-Emir Mausoleum and Shahi-Zinda Architectural Ensemble, all in Samarkand, and the Dorus-Siadat Mausoleum in Shakhrisabz, Chashma-Ayub Mausoleum in Bukhara, and Hadji-Ahmad Jassaviy Mausoleum in Turkestan, have stood the test of time and can be seen today.

Zahiriddin Muhammad Bobur
Zahiriddin Muhammad Bobur was born on February 14, 1483, in the city of Andijan in present-day Uzbekistan. He was the eldest son of Omar Sheikh, ruler of the Ferghana Valley, and the fifth generation of Amir Temur. In 1494 when Bobur was only 12 years old, he became a ruler. In 1503 – 1504 he conquered Afghanistan. During 1519 – 1525s he tried to conquer India five times. He became the founder of Bobur`s Empire which lasted more than three centuries (1526 - 1858). He died in 1530, December 26, in Agra. His grave was in Agra but then it was brought to Kabul. He gathered his lyric testament in 1519 in Kabul into “Kabul Devonu”, and in 528 – 1529 in “Hind Devoni”.

There is the information that he created the completed devon. The general amount of his poems is more than 400. 119 of them are written in such as style that is called “gazal” and 231 of them are “ruboi”.

“Boburnoma” was translated into Farsiy/Persian in 1586, into Dunish in 1705 by Vitsen, into English in 1826 by J. Layden and V.Erskin, into French in 1871 by P. de Kurtail, into Turkish in the XX th century by Rashit Rahmat and into Russian by Michail Salye.

During 1826 – 1985 “Boburname” was translated four times into English (1826, 1905, 1921, 1922) three times into French (1878, 1980, 1985) and only once into German. Among them there are such novels “Boburhan”, which was written by Flora Ann Stealning (Paris, 1940), “Bobur” by Fernand Grenardning (Paris, 1930), “Bobur-Tiger” by Garold Lamb (New York, 1961), “Bobur and his ancestors or Great Moguls” (New York, 1980) by Vamber Gaskoin.

The Indian Munil`al wrote 6 novels about Boburids. In Uzbek Literature such writers as Qodirov P., Bayqobilov B., Sultonov H., devoted their novels, and short stories and “doston” to Bobur.

Russian and West European scientists such as Veselovskiy, Ilminskiy, Erskin, Eduard Holden, and Elfiniston appreciated “Boburnoma”. Javaharlal Neru wrote in his book “The discovering of India” about Bobur and Bobur`s generation influence on development of India and the world`s civilization.

Zohidov V., Azimjonova S., Shamsiyev P., Hasanov S. wrote their books about the creative work of Bobur. During the last years the scientists of National University of Uzbekistan did their investigations on the style of Bobur`s lyric poetry according to his work “Mubayyin”
Bobur`s “Mubayyin-l-zakot” gives us information on the tax work of 1521.
And his work “Muxtasar”, which was written in 1523 – 1525, is about “aruz”. These two works have been kept till today. Bobur was also engaged in translation. He translated Hoja Ahror`s work “Volidiya” from Persian/Farsi into Uzbek. There is also the information that Bobur wrote such books as “Harb ishi” (Military Work) and “Musiqa ilmi” (The knowledge of Music), but they were not found.

Mirza Muhammad Taraghay ibn Shahrukh ibn Timur

(22 March 1394, Sultaniyeh - 27 October 1449, Samarkand)
Astronomer, mathematician, geographer, historian

Mirza Ulugh Beg was born in 1394 in the city of Sultaniyeh (currently Iran) during his grandfather’s (Amir Temur’s) five-year campaign. His father was Amir Temur’s younger son Shohruh Mirza (1377-1447). The real name of Mirza Ulugh Beg named after Amir Temur’s father was Muhammad Taraghay. As a child he demonstrated a logical mind and sharp brain, for which his grandfather called him Ulugh Beg (Great Bey – translation from Turkic). It was under this name that he became known in history and fully justified the expectations of his grandfather.

Like most of the Timurids, he was brought up at the court of Amir Temur. His teachers were reknown scientists and writers of the time. It is not accidental that he became not only an outstanding scientist, but also a connoisseur of poetry like his brothers Ibrahim Sultan and Boysunkur Mirzo.
In 1405 Amir Temur died and following the failure of his grandson Khalil Sultan in 1409, the throne passed to Shahrukh. The same year, Ulugh Beg was declared governor of Transoxiana (part of Central Asia to the east of the Amudarya River) with the capital in Samarkand.
Shahrukh ruled from Herat and proved himself an outstanding statesman. In this complex political environment, he was not only capable of keeping together the empire created by Amir Temur for almost 40 years, but together with his son Ulugh Beg he secured peace and prosperity in the country.
Along with public affairs, Mirzo Ulugh Beg actively engaged in development of Transoxiana, built higher educational institutions (madrasahs) in Samarkand, Bukhara, Gijduvan and Karman. Keeping the tradition of his grandfather, he invited to Samarkand famous scientists, astronomers and mathematicians of the Islamic world. During his reign, Samarkand became one of the world centers of science.

Main scientific works
Ulugh Beg’s main area of interest in science was astronomy. In 1428 the construction of the Ulugh Beg observatory was completed. Its main mechanism was the quadrant with a radius of 40 meters, the only one of its kind in the world at the time. Ulugh Beg’s associates included prominent astronomers such as Qadi Zada al-Rumi, Ghiyath al-Din al-Kashi, and Ali Qushji.
Ulugh Beg’s main work in astronomy, Ziji Jadidi Guragani (New astronomical tables of Guragana) was in Persian and consisted mainly of the tables of coordinates of stars. The compilation of 1018 stars with high precision of spheric coordinates made hime famous initially in the Muslim world, and later (starting from the mid-17th century) in Europe and the whole world.

Contribution to world scientific heritage
First of all, his contribution to the world scientific heritage includes the catalogue of 1018 stars. The first star catalogue was compiled in the 2nd century B.C. by the ancient Greek astronomer, Hipparchus. Later astronomers introduced amendments to Hipparchus’ catalogue without performing original observations. By the beginning of the 15th century discrepancies between the actual position of the stars in the sky and their coordinates became significant, and Ulugh Beg decided to conduct his own measurements of the coordinates of stars. Thus, his table became the first catalogue after Hipparchus (i.e. 16 centuries later!) that was obtained on the basis of original astronomical measurements. This is the enduring scientific value Ulugh Beg’s Zij.

Contribution to mathematics
The core text of Ulugh Beg’s main work “New astronomical tables of Guragana” begins with trigonometric tables of very high accuracy. The table of sines is compiled with an increment of one minute, the table of tangents – in the range of 1-45 degrees with an increment of one minute, in the range of 45-90 degrees – with an increment of 5 minutes. The values are given to Quint 60-ary number system, which gives 7 to 12 correct digits in terms of the decimal system, i.e. the tables are compiled with the precision to 10–7–10–12.
In order to find the value of sin1° with great precision, Ulugh Beg, together with his colleagues developed a method of successive approximations , as set forth in his treatise “On the computation of the sine of one degree.”
In order to formulate the astronomical tables, which required the calculation of trigonometric functions and the coordinates of the stars with the abovementioned accuracy in a very large quantity, Ulugh Beg set up a research center, which became a prototype for the modern data centers.

International recognition
Ulugh Beg’s name is a symbol of selfless service in the name of science. In the mid-17th century a reknown Polish astronomer Hevelius included Ulugh Beg’s catalogue in his Astronomy: Beginning. He supplied his work with two illustrations, in which Ulugh Beg is pictured along with prominent astronomers of the world of different times. These illustrations are included in textbooks on astronomy and treatises on the history of science. They have become the invaluable relics commemorating the astronomical school of Ulugh Beg. His name is commemorated in the name of a crater on the Moon (17th century). One of the minor planets of the solar system, discovered in 1977 and registered by the Harvard Center under the registry number of 2439, was named after him.
According to the decrees of the President of Uzbekistan Islam Karimov National University of Uzbekistan and the Astronomical Institute of the Academy of Sciences of the Republic of Uzbekistan are named after Ulugh Beg. In 2004, during the official visit of the President of Uzbekistan to Latvia a monument of Mirza Ulugh Beg was officially opened in Riga.

Alisher Navoi
Alisher Navoi (1441-1501), one of the greatest poets of the Medieval East, the author of many lyrical poems, gazelles, prose work, scientific treatises, the founder of Uzbek literature and the statesman, humanist, the patron of scientists, painters and craftsmen. For more than five centuries the people of the world have enjoyed reading his book, singing his songs and studying his work.

Alisher Navoi was born on 9 February 1441 and spent most part of his life in the town of Herat, located in Horasan. From 10-12 years old he began to write verses.
During the life A.Navoi has visited many countries of the East, and got acquainted with many outstanding oriental people. Develop his poetic mastership. In 1464-65 his admirers made his first collected verses (divan).
In 1472 A.Navoi was appointed a vizier (minister) in the court of Sultan Husain Mirzo Boiqaro, the governor of Horasan. A.Navoi actively participated in political life of his country. By his order, hospitals, madrasassah and bridges were created.

Since 1488 begun a new epoch in the life of Navoi, he spent more time writing. In 1490-1501 Navoi wrote his main Lyric, public, philosophic and scientific works. In 1483-85 he wrote "Hamsa", the work consisted of 5 separate poems: "Hairat al-abrar" - "confusion of righteous", "Farhad va Shirin" -"Farhad and Shirin", "Laili va Majnun", "Sabai saiyar" - " Seven planets", "Saddi Iskandari" - "the wall of Iskandar". "Hamsa" - is the first work in that genre ever written in Turkic language. Navoi tried to prove that it is possible to create such work in Chagatai (old uzbek) language, which can stand on the same level with works written in Persian language. And in fact he did it. Navoi tried himself in all popular genres of literature of the time and shows that he has his own voice and style.

Alisher Navoi died on 3 January, 1501, when he was 60 years old.
Alisher Navoi exerted an enormous influence on the development of Uzbek and other Turkish-speaking literatures.
The poems of Alisher Navoi have been translated to many languages of the world. His manuscripts are being preserved in the largest libraries of the world (France, Great Britain, USA, Russia, Turkey, Iran and etc).

The national park under the name of Alisher Navoi with his monument was created in the centre of Tashkent – capital of Uzbekistan.
The city and one of the 12 provinces in Uzbekistan were named after Alisher Navoi, as well as National Library, Theater of Opera and Ballet, Metro station in Tashkent, schools and colleges.

There are monuments of Alisher Navoi were constructed in foreign countries - in Moscow, Russia in 2002 and at Soka University, Japan in 2004.

Abu Ali ibn Sina
(980. village Afshana-1037, Hamadan)

Abu Ali al-Huseyn ibn Abdallah ibn Sina was born in Afshana near Bukhara. He got primary education by his father, then he learned sciences at Abu Abdallah an- Natili in Bukhara. For special achievements in 996 the young Huseyn was invited to emir Nuha ibn Mansura as-Samani’s palace (976-997). But soon the rulling of Samanids ended and after 1002 year Ibn Sino moved to Gurganj – to the khorezmshah Abu-l-Hasana Ali ibn Mamun (997-1009). Here he becoms one of the most active members of Mamun academy. In 1011 Ibn Sino, leave Gurganj with masihi, avoiding the chase of sultan Mahmud Gaznevi. He going to Abivard at thee north of Horasan, then – to the Nishapur and then – to the Gurgan and then – from 1014 to 1037 he live in Re, Isfahan. Ibn Sino died in 1037 year in Hamadanl. His grave saved here till our days.

Main science works
Ibn Sino was the real encyclopedia-scientist successfully worked almost all kinds of subjects of knowledge of his times. There are more than 450 his works, and about 240 of them saved till our days, they are written mainly in Arabic.
Scientific opinion of Ibn Sino is well considered in his following works: al-kanun fi-t-tibb (Canons of Medicine) – medical encyclopedia, in which organized all the questions of theoretical and practical medicine of that period of time; it consists of 5 books. Kitab ash-shifa (the book of healing) – philosophical encyclopedia, which contain of 4 parts: logic, extact sciences, mathematic sciences, metaphysics (theology). Kitab an-najat (the book of saving) – the short version of book on healing. Danish-name (the book of knowledge) – philosophic work in Persian, in which he considered many question of theoretic philosophy, and logic as well. Risala al-iksir (tract of elixir) – honored to chemistry, to practical ways of transmutation of steels, al-Aydviyat al-kalbiya (medicine for heart) – philosophic-medicine work, honored of healing heart diseases, in which giving the authors opinion about a soul. Salaman va Ibsal (Salaman and Ibsal), (Alive son of Awake) – literature-philosophic stories. Correspondence with Ibn Sino and Beruni on physics and philosophy.
The range of interests of the scientist is very wide: medicine, philosophy, logic, psychology, physics, astronomy, math, music, chemistry, ethics, literature, linguistics and etc. But Ibn Sino became famous mainly because of his works for medicine and philosophy. The “Canons of Medicine” and philosophic encyclopedia “the book of healing”, which includes not only philosophic questions, but also of natural knowledge.

Contribution to the World Science
Ibn Sino has taken an active part in many kinds of science, offering very modern scientific ideas of his period of time.
In astronomy, in one of his works, quoting by Beruni, Ibn Sino give his specific way of calculating of length of a city, using the watching of shadowing of the moon; he firstly made a tool, which from XVI cent. Was known as “nonius” (radial astronomic tool for calculating of some spherihic coordinates of suns), By the name of Portugal scientist Nonius who was the second to explored it.
He made some theories in natural knowledge about the origin of earthquakes, volcanoes, appearance of mountains, which was set in modern geology, made classification of a things, classification of a sciences, in which he set the natural sciences for the first place
In medicine he made new and effective methods of diagnosis, therapeutical and surgeon healing, most of which was secondly discovered in Europe. Also Ibn Sino brought much new in anatomy. For example he fixed prescription of the eye and its functions, gave a new explanation of viewing process, close to the modern imagination. Famous historian, academic V.N. Ternovsky, prescription of structure and function of vessels, nerves and muscles give the link between anatomy and practic, which let to consider the basist of Russian practic anatomy N. Pirogov as a follower of Avicenna.

Avicenna was a good diagnosis. Some of his methods of diagnosis doesn’t lose its meaning to the nowadays.
For example, precussion – understanding of diseases by knocking to the gland. This method was secondly discovered By Venice doctor Leopold Auenbrugger (1722-1809) after 600 years after Avicenna. This method began practiced only after 50 years. Firstly in the history of medicine Avicenna differed cholera from plague; exactly prescript the symptoms and continuation of meningitis, stomach ulcer, hepatitis, plevritis, leprosy, chicken pox and another illnesses. He understood the rabies, its transmissibility, symptoms and state of patient at this illness.

Avicenna made a lot in developing of surgery. In his medical works, for example, in famous “Canons of Medicine” Avicenna prescript the methods, which nowadays are using in modern surgery. For example, knitting of h(a)emorrhoidal node, stopping the bleeding with tampon, caustic or sewing up, tracheotomy (cut and putting a pipe in the throat for breathing), and also Fixing of dislocation of shoulder with simple pressing on is known as “Avicenna’s method” till nowadays. Besides, Avicenna got a big attention to anesthesia while operations. For this goal he used the plants with narcotic action.

Avicenna took a big part in developing of pharmacy. He ended the formation of new pharmacy, which appeared in the Muslim East based on formation of ancient scientists. His methods of taking, keeping, processing of medical plants are very close to the modern one.

Today many medicines, used by Avicenna, are using in modern pharmacopeia.
In his works Ibn Sino developed the classic Greek philosophy, added it with new ideas. His philosophic correspondence with Beruni the researchers named as «correspondence of the century». In it Ibn Sino had a discuss with Beruni about the teachings of Aristotle (384-322 year BC) for some question of physics (natural place of bodies and substances, the centrifugal force of bodies,, divisibility of tiny particles of a variety of worlds, self-fix in substances questions optics, vacuum availability, etc. The content of correspondence indicates advanced for their time views of these scientists in many of current issues of science.

World Recognition
Ibn Sino is one of those great persons, whose service to humanity is difficult to convey.
His name is associated with one of the most demand at all times a branch of science medicine: his works since the 12th century were translated into Latin and from the 15th century were published about 40 times. Until the 18th century in all the universities of Europe medicine were taught by “canon” and the name of the scientist became famous in Western Europe in the Latinized form as “Avicenna”.
Scientific, philosophical outlook of such prominent European thinkers and cultural figures like Roger Bacon (1214-1291), Dante (!265-1221), Leonardo Da Vinci (1452-1519) Michelangelo (1475-1564), Vesalius (1514-1564),Volterra (1694-1778), Goethe (1749-1832) were influenced by the works of Avicenna.
Writings of Ibn Sino on various sciences translated and published repeatedly in many western and eastern languages, including Russian and Uzbek. His name have been immortalized in the names of: tropical plants as Avicenna, mineral avisennit as well as great number of street names, educational and medical institutions, and monuments all around the world.

Abu Arrayhan Muhammad ibn Ahmad al - Biruni

Born: 15 Sept 973 in Kath, Khwarazm (now Khorezm province, Uzbekistan.)
Died: 13 Dec 1048 in Ghazna (now Ghazni, Afganistan.)

Al - Biruni is one of the major figures of Islamic mathematics. He contributed to astronomy, mathematics, physics, medicine and history.
Abu Rayhan al - Biruni was born in Khwarazm, a region adjoining the Aral Sea now known as Karakalpakstan. The two major cities in this region were Kath and Jurjaniyya. Al - Biruni was born near Kath and the town were he was born is today called Biruni after the great scholar. He lived both in Kath and in Jurjaniyya as he grew up and we know that he began studies at a very early age under the famous astronomer and mathematician Abu Nasr Mansur.
The total number of works produced by al - Biruni during his lifetime is impressive. It is estimated, that he wrote around 146 works with a total of about 13,000 folios (a folio contains about the same amount as a printed page from a modern book). The range of al - Biruni’s works covers essentially the whole of science at his time.
We know certain dates in al - Biruni's life with certainty for he describes astronomical events in his works which allow accurate dates and places to be determined. By the age of seventeen al - Biruni was engaged in serious scientific work for it was in 990 that he computed the latitude of Kath by observing the maximum altitude of the sun.
His description of an eclipse of the moon on 24 May 997 which he observed at Kath means that he had returned to his nativecountry by this time. The eclipse was an event that was also visible in Baghdadand al - Biruni had arranged with Abu'l - Wafa to observe it there. Comparing their timings enabled them to calculate the difference in longitude between the cities. We know that al - Biruni moved around frequently during this period for by 1000 he was at Gurgan being supported by Qabus, the ruler of the Ziyarid state. He dedicated his work Chronology to Qabus around 1000 and he was still in Gurgan on 19 February 1003 and 14 August 1003 when he observed eclipses of the moon there. We should record that in the Chronology al - Biruni refers to seven earlier works which he had written: one on the decimal system, one on the astrolabe, one on astronomical observations, three on astrology, and two on history.
His most famous work India was written as a direct result of the studies he made while in that country. The India is a massive work coveringmany different aspects of the country. Al - Biruni describes the religion and philosophy of India, its caste system and marriage customs. He then studies the Indian systems of writing and numbers before going on to examine the geography of the country. The book also examines Indian astronomy, astrology and the calendar. The book might have been written, when al - Biruni was in India with Mahmud Ghaznavid during Mahmud's military excursions into India. It is likely that al - Biruni was essentially a prisoner of Mahmud and was not free to leave and it meant that al - Biruni was taken to that country by Mahmud. From around 1022 Mahmud's armies began to have success in taking control of the northern parts of India and in 1026 his armies marched to the Indian Ocean. Al - Biruni seems only to have been in the northern parts of India, and we are uncertain how many visits he made, but observations he made there enabled him to determine the latitudes of eleven towns around the Punjab and the borders of Kashmir.
Al - Biruni studied Indian literature in the original, translating several Sanskrit texts into Arabic. He also wrote several treatises devoted to certain aspects of Indian astronomy and mathematics which were of particular interest to him. Al - Biruni was amazingly well read, having knowledge of Sanskrit literature on topics such as astrology, astronomy, chronology, geography, grammar, mathematics, medicine, philosophy, religion, and weights and measures.
One of the most important of al - Biruni's many texts is Shadows which he is thought to have written around 1021.The contents of the work include the Arabicnomenclature of shadeand shadows, strange phenomena involving shadows, gnomonics, the history of the tangent and secant functions, applications of the shadow functions to the astrolabe and to other instruments, shadow observations for the solution of various astronomical problems, and the shadow - determined times of Muslim prayers. Shadows is an extremely important source for our knowledge of the history of mathematics, astronomy, and physics. It also contains important ideas such as the idea that acceleration is connected with non - uniform motion, using three rectangular coordinates to define a point in 3 - space, and ideas that some see as anticipating the introduction of polar coordinates.
The book details the mathematical contributions of al - Biruni. These include: theoretical and practical arithmetic, summation of series, combinatorial analysis, the rule of three, irrational numbers, ratio theory, algebraic definitions, method of solving algebraic equations, geometry, Archimedes' theorems, trisection of the angle and other problems which cannot be solved with ruler and compass alone, conic sections, stereometry, stereographic projection, trigonometry, the sine theorem in the plane, and solving spherical triangles.
Important contributions to geodesy and geography were also made by al-Biruni. He introduced techniques to measure the earth and distances on it using triangulation. He found the radius of the earth to be 6339.6 km, a value not obtained in the West until the 16th century. His Masudic canon contains a table giving the coordinates of six hundred places, almost all of which he had direct knowledge.
Not all, however, were measured by al -Biruni himself, some being taken from a similar table given by al - Khwarizmi. The author of remarks that al - Biruni seemed to realise that for places given by both al - Khwarizmi and Ptolemy, the value obtained by al - Khwarizmi is the more accurate.
Al-Biruni also wrote a treatise on time - keeping, wrote several treatises on the astrolabe and describes a mechanical calendar. He makes interesting observations on the velocity of light, stating that its velocity is immense compared with that of sound.

Abu Abdalloh Muhamad ibn Musa al Khorezmi

Born: about 780 in Khorezm province in Uzbekistan.
Died: about 850.

Mathematician, astronomer, geographer and historian
Creator of algebra

Muhammad аl Khorezmi a scholar who made an invaluable contribution to the development for world science and made great discoveries. The bibliographical data had not been found. But, there are the facts that at the beginning of 800’s he was invited to Ma’mun ibn Haruna ar-Rashid court, the Baghdad Caliph’s viceroy in Khorasan, and by twenty years old he was well-known scientist, got his education in native Khorazm. In 813 Ma’mun took the throne and together with his scholars that he had gathered around him in Marv moved to Bagdad. Ma’mun was a fan of science. Here, he had founded Bayt al Hikma (The House of Wisdom), at the history of science it was named as “Baghdad academy” or “Ma’mun Academy”. Muhammad al Khorazmi was the leader of scientific center to the end of his life. A lot of scholars and scientists from different parts of Central Asia and Arabian East worked there. The richest library of old manuscripts was at their disposal. The observatory had been constructed for works and discoveries.

Main Scientific Works

Muhammad al Khorazmi was the author about 20 scientific works that were written in Arabian. Today, only seven of them are available, they are:
Fi hisab al-hind (The book on Indian count) - an essay, where the decimal positional system with nine digits and zero had been justified and set out.
Al Kitab al Muhtasarfi hisab al-jabrva al mukabala (Brief book on algebra and al mukabala)- the work, where algebra was founded as a science by the author and gave its name.
Zij al Khuarazmi (Astronomical tables) – an essay, consists of a small theoretical part and tables, where table of trigonometric function of sinus are shown;
Kitab surat al – ard (The Book of World Picture) – a geographical tractate, where the description of eastern hemisphere had been shown for the first time in the medieval, the Pacific ocean (Bahr al Muzallam) was described, inhabited world map was shown.

Contribution to the World Science
Muhammad al Khorazmiy made his contribution to the development of mathematics, astronomy, geography and through them – to the development of civilization:
He founded and he substantiated and coined the decimal positional number system with nine figures and zero sign. Created algebra as a science and gave its name.
He developed and implemented a new method of presenting scientific and educational works – through clear and exact rules. In European literature it is given as “algorithm”, which dates back to the name of al-Khorazmi in Latin transcription. This concept is the basis of all modern digital information and computer technology. Due to this method of exposition, the works of Muhammad al-Khorazmi are widespread. Furthermore, it is known that he is the first who had used polar coordinates.
In the astronomical book of Muhammad al Khorazmi “Zij” the movement of the sun, the moon, the five planets, mathematical geographic issues, trigonometry, the eclipses of the Sun and Moon were examined.
In 1126 it was translated into Latin, in 1914 into German and in 1962 into English languages.

The World Recognition
Muhammad al-Khorazmi’s merits in the development of mathematics and world civilization are widely recognized, and his name is the only name of the Eastern scientists, is enshrined in the title of “algorithm”, as well as the term “algebra”. Paying tribute to the genius of Al-Khorazmi, the most accurate assessment of his significance in the history of science has given American historian J.Sarton “… is the greatest mathematician of his time, and if we take into account all the circumstances, and one of the greatest scientists of all time.”

Abul-Abbas Ahmad ibn Muhammad ibn Kasir al Farghani

(abouе 798-865)
Astronomer, mathematician, and engineer

The exact date of birth and death of Ahmad al Farghani is not known. It is obvious from his name that he is from Ferghana. In Western Europe he was recognized of Latin name - Alfraganus.

Ahmad al Farghani worked together with Muhammad al Khorazmi in Bayt al Hikma (The House of Wisdom) in Bagdad. He participated in measuring the length of a meridian degree in Sanjar desert in Iraq.

The only reliable date in the biography of Ahmad al-Fargani is 861, when he built a new Nilometer (scale that measures water level of the Nile) on the island of Rauda near Cairo, which functioned until 1971, i.e. until the Aswan Dam construction.

The Main Scientific Works
The list of preserved to date, 11 works by Ahmad al Farghoni written in the Arabic language includes – Kitab fi usul ilm an-nujum («The elements of astronomy»), Bab fi ma’rifa al-vaqt al-lati yakuni al-kamar fiha fa-vqa al-ard av tahtakha («the Treatise on time, when the Moon goes under and above the Earth»), Hisab al-akalim as-sab’a («The calculus of seven climates»), al-Kamil fi san’a al-asturlab ash-shimali wa-l-janubi bi-l handasa wa-l-hisab («A comprehensive book on the structure of the north and south astrolabe supplied with geometrical justification»), Kitab amal ar-ruhamat («A book of construction of sundials»), Kitab amal bi-l asturlab («A book of operations with astrolabe») and many others.

The “Elements of Astronomy” used as a textbook for astronomy classes, was translated in the XII century into the Latin language and was very popular in Europe. The book contains evidence for spherical form of the Earth and the data on the planet’s size, which induced Ch. Columbus, F. Magellan and other travelers to make geographical discoveries.
Both «A comprehensive book on structure of the north and south astrolabe supplied with geometrical justification», and «A book of construction of sundials», contain guidelines for designing, making and applying astronomic tools – astrolabes (a planar astronomic instrument made of copper, bronze or other similar alloys, which is used for defining the coordinates of celestial bodies) and sundials.

In his “Book of operations with astrolabe” Ahmad al-Farghoni, proved the theorem of Ptolemy on the stereographic projection (stereographic projection – projecting of points on the surface of the imaginary heavenly sphere from one pole on to the plane crossing through its other pole, or on to the plane containing the equator), which is recognized as the main theory of astrolabe – the most popular medieval astronomic instrument.

Contribution to the World Science
The book “Elements of Astronomy” used in most European universities up till the XVII century as the main textbook on astronomy brought him big fame. The book was the source of knowledge both for scientists and ordinary people interested in the matters of the world structure. So, the great Italian poet of the XIII century Dante Aligueri made use of the cosmography by Ahmad al-Farghoni, in his poetry work “The Feast”.

World Recognition
One of the craters on the Moon is called «Alfraghanus » (from XVII century). It was in 1998 when on the initiative of the President Islam Karimov and at the support from UNESCO, we widely celebrated the 1200th birthday of Ahmad al-Farghoni. The Ferghana State University was named after A. Farghoni. In 2007, when the President of Uzbekistan was in Egypt on the official visit, a monument to Ahmad al-Farghony was mounted on the island of Raud.